Margrethe Hald Exhibition 2022

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KUB South Campus,
Copenhagen University Library
10/02/2022 - 01/05/2022 

Redskaber til tekstilproduktion / Tools for textile production

Rekonstruktion af oldtidens teknikker til tekstilproduktion var en central del af Margrethe Halds arbejde. Hendes håndværksmæssige baggrund som væver kom således til synes i hendes arbejdsmetoder, og gennem sine mange rekonstruktioner var Hald med til at forme eksperimentalarkæologien. 

Udstillet her er rekonstruktioner af redskaber benyttet i førindustriel tekstilproduktion lignende dem, som Hald gjorde brug af i sit eksperimentelle arbejde. Iblandt de udstillede objekter er bl.a. håndtene, tenvægte, trendvægte, et vævesværd og plantefarvet garn.

Reconstruction of ancient techniques for textile production was a central part of Margrethe Hald’s work. In this way, her background as a craftsperson is apparent in her work and through her many reconstructions, Hald took part in shaping the experimental archaeological approach. 

Displayed here are reconstructions of ancient pre-industrial tools for textile production, similar to the ones used by Hald in her experimental work. Some of the objects you can see are spindles, spindle whorls, loom weights, a weaving batten and naturally dyed yarn.

Tegninger udført af Margrethe Hald I / Drawings by Margrethe Hald I

Margrethe Hald var tidligere elev på Tegne- og Kunstindustri- skolen for Kvinder, og hun tegnede og malede som oftest selv de tekniske tegninger, som blev anvendt til at illustrere hendes bøger og artikler. De her viste analysetegninger, som hun udar- bejdede til publikationer, er i Center for Tekstilforsknings Arkiv.

Til venstre vises en analyse af trendlåsen på en rundvævning fra Rebild. En trendlås er betegnelsen for den snor, der holder endekanterne på en rundvævning sammen, både under vævearbejdet og bagefter. Hvis man ønsker et rørformet stykke tekstil, lader man trendlåsen blive siddende i det vævede, hvis man derimod vil have et fladt stykke tekstil, hives trendlåsen ud. Analysen ses i Olddanske Tekstiler s. 224.

Her til højre ses en analyse af sidekanten på det ternede skørt fra Huldremose I. Der er tale om én af de mest ejendommelige og komplicerede kanter på et dansk arkæologisk tekstil, og Hald kalder den da også ”Det mest aparte af samtlige Kantborter...” i sin doktordisputats. Analysen er gengivet på s. 158 i Olddanske Tekstiler.

Margrethe Hald was a former student at Tegne- og Kunstindustris- kolen for Kvinder, and she usually drew and painted the technical drawings that illustrated her publications. The drawings shown here that she created for her publications are in the possession of the Centre for Textile Research.

To the left is an analysis of the warp lock from a tubular textile from Rebild. A warp lock is the cord that holds together the ends of a tubular woven textile, both during weaving and afterwards. If a tubular textile is wanted, the warp lock must stay in place after weaving, but if a flat textile is wanted, the warp lock must be pulled out of the woven fabric. The illustration is found in Hald’s doctoral thesis on p. 224.

To the right is an analysis of the side edge from the Huldremose I checkered skirt. This is one of the most peculiar and compli- cated edges on a Danish archaeological textile, and Hald also call it “The most unique of all Edges...” in her doctoral disser- tation. The analysis is shown on p. 158 in Olddanske Tekstiler.

Tegninger udført af Margrethe Hald II / Drawings by Margrethe Hald II

Til venstre ses en analyse af trendlåsen på et fragmenteret stykke tekstil fra Borremose, et fund som Hald publicerede i sin artikel fra 1955 Olddanske Tekstiler. Fund fra Aarene 1947-1955.

Til højre ses en analyse af kædeløkkernes stilling på en lille væv fra Vancouver Islands. Af tegningens bagside fremgår, at der er tale om en genstand fra Pitt Rivers Museum i London. Tegningen er dateret 10-11-1954 og er udført på baggrund af Halds ophold i England i august-september 1954. Den viser en form for trend- lås, der adskiller sig fra andre trendlåse ved at være surret fast til trendløkkerne med to uafhængige snore. Denne ufuldendte tegning har ikke været publiceret.

To the left is an analysis of the warp lock on a fragmented piece of textile from Borremose, a find that Hald published in her article from 1955 Olddanske Tekstiler. Fund fra Aarene 1947- 1955.

To the right is an analysis showing the warp loops’ positions on a small loom from the Vancouver Islands. The reverse side of the drawing indicates that the object is from the Pitt Rivers Museum in London. The drawing is dated 10-11-1954 and was made on the basis of Hald’s stay in England in August-September 1954. It shows a sort of warp lock that differs from other warp locks by being fastened to the warp loops with two independent cords. This unfinished drawing has not been published.

Nålebundne genstande / Objects made in needle-binding

I denne montre findes nogle genstande, som Margrethe Hald har lavet. Det drejer sig om en række små huer, som er udført i teknikken nålebinding. Nålebinding minder teknisk en del om hæk- ling, bortset fra at tråden trækkes hele vejen igennem hver maske ved nålebinding. Det betyder, at man kun kan arbejde med en tråd af en vis længde og at man er nødt til at binde en ny længde tråd til fra tid til anden, når ens arbejdstråd er ved at slippe op. Dermed forbliver nålebindingen en temmelig lang- sommelig teknik i forhold til andre masketeknikker og måske er det derfor, at nålebindingen i 1940erne næsten var forsvundet i glemslen indtil Margrethe Hald genopdagede teknikken i nogle vanter, som Nationalmuseet havde fået tilsendt. I 1945 nålebandt Hald en såkaldt Montyhue, en alpehue til feltmarskal Montgomery, som han fik overrakt efter sit indtog i København.

Hald blev i september 1949 interviewet af en journalist på Po- litiken forud for udgivelsen af sin doktordisputats og udtalte, at hun havde planer om at undervise i nålebinding og give denne teknik tilbage til landets kvinder – og udlandets med. Desuden fremgik det af artiklen, at nålebindingen ville kunne frembringe tekstiler, der kunne opfylde modens krav.

In this display case are some objects that Margrethe Hald has made. These are a number of small hats made in the needle binding technique. Needle binding is technically somewhat reminiscent of crochet, except that the thread is pulled all the way through each stich. This means that one can only work with a thread of a certain length and that a new length must be tied to the thread from time to time when the work thread is getting too short. Thus, needle binding remains a rather slow technique compared to other looping techniques and perhaps that is why needle bind- ing in the 1940s had almost disappeared into oblivion until Hald rediscovered the thechnique in some mittens that were gifted to the National Museum of Denmark. In 1945, Hald made a so-called Monty cap, a beret to Field Marshal Montgomery, which he received after his entry into Copenhagen.

In September 1949, Hald was interviewed by a journalist at Poli- tiken prior to the publication of her doctoral dissertation. She stated that she planned to teach needle binding in order to give this technique back to the Danish women – and those abroad. The article also claimed that needle binding could produce textiles that would meet the requirements of fashion.

Rejser til Mellemøsten 1960 og 1961 / Travels to the Middle East 1960 and 1961

I denne montre ses fotos og nogle påbegyndte Davidslynger, som Margrethe Hald havde med hjem fra sine rejser i Mellemøsten. Halds første rejse til Syrien varede fra 3. juni til 9. juli 1960. Hun blev huset i det danske hospital i Nebk (An-Nabek), der var en del af Østerlandsmissionen. Hun fandt hurtigt rund- væven i brug og besøgte i løbet af de første dage et værksted for teltvævning i byen Jabroud Dette værksted arbejdede med rundvævning og er beskrevet i flere af hendes artikler.

Halds anden rejste til Syrien varede fra 20. september til 19. december 1961. Hun genbesøgte flere steder fra sin første tur, men besøgte også Jerusalem og Jordan. Hendes rejse blev hindret af konflikter, som fandt sted i kølvandet på det syriske coup d’état, der fandt sted den 28. september samme år.

This showcase contains photos and some unfinished David’s sling- shots that Margrethe Hald brought home from her travels in the Middle East.
Hald’s first trip to Syria was from 3 June to 9 July 1960. She was housed in the Danish Hospital in the town of Nebk (An-Nabek), which was part of the Danish Mission to the Orient. During the first days, she found the tubular loom in use and visited a tent weaver’s workshop in Yabroud. This workshop worked with tubular looms and was described in several of her articles.

Hald’s second trip to Syria lasted from 20 September to 19 December 1961. She revisited several places but also went to Jerusalem and Jordan. Her travels were hindered this time be- cause of the conflicts that broke out following the Syrian coup d'état of 1961, which took place on 28 September that year.

Opholdet i Latinamerika 1965-66 / The stay in Latin America 1965-66

Fem år efter sit andet ophold i Mellemøsten rejste Margrethe Hald atter ud i verden i den hensigt at forske i rundvævningens anvendelse hos de forskellige oprindelige folkeslag samt forsøge at kortlægge dette særlige opsætningsprincips udbredelse i Syd- og Mellemamerika. Rejsen blev indledt d. 22-10-1965 og blev afsluttet 16-03-1966, hvor hun atter landede i Danmark.

Hald opholdt sig i alt ca. fem måneder i Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala og Mexico, hvor hun ivrigt fotograferede de lokale folkeslags påklædning og tekstile håndværk, såsom spin- ding, vævning og broderi. De første måneder fandt hun ikke rund- vævningsprincippet anvendt, men dokumenterede i stedet india- nernes brug af lændevæven. I Peru fik hun en unik mulighed for at besøge fængslet i byen Cuzco, hvor mange af de indsatte var beskæftiget i dagtimerne med at væve på lændevæve.

I februar 1966, under en udflugt til byen Silvia i det sydvest- lige Colombia, fandt Hald omsider den type væveopsætning hun havde ledt efter.

Five years after her second stay in the Middle East, Margrethe Hald set out for another journey intending to research the use of tubular weaving among the various indigenous peoples and to map the spread of this particular set-up principle in South and Central America. The journey began on 22-10-1965 and ended 16- 03-1966 where she landed in Denmark again. Hald stayed a total of approximately five months in Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colom- bia, Guatemala and Mexico, where she eagerly photographed local folk costumes and textile crafts, such as spinning, weaving and embroidery. During the first months of her stay, she did not find the principle of tubular weaving applied, but instead doc- umented the natives’ use of the back-strap loom. In Peru, she had the unique opportunity to visit the prison in Cuzco, where many of the inmates were busy weaving on back-strap looms during the day.

In February 1966, during an excursion to the city of Silvia in southwestern Colombia, Hald finally found the type of weaving set-up that she had been looking for.

Broholm og Hald / Broholm and Hald

Margrethe Hald havde et mangeårigt samarbejde med bronzealder- specialist og museumsinspektør H.C. Broholm (1893-1966). Sam- men publicerede de flere værker, som kan ses i montren her. Udstillet er bl.a. særtryk af Broholms mindre publikationer med kammeratlige hilsener til Hald, der tydeligt viser deres tætte forhold. I montren kan også ses Broholm og Halds store værk Danske Bronzealders Dragter fra 1935 (eng. udg. 1940), og deres bog Skrydstrupfundet fra 1939, hvori en detaljeret illu- stration af bronzealderpigens hoved er inkluderet.

Margrethe Hald had a long-lasting collaboration with Bronze Age specialist and curator H.C. Broholm (1893-1966). Together they published several works, which can be found in the show- case here. In some offprints of Broholm’s smaller works are friendly and informal notes for Hald, clearly showing their close relationship. In the showcase, the great work Danish Bronze-Age Costumes of Broholm and Hald from 1935 (eng. ed. 1940) is displayed as well as their book Skrydstrupfundet from 1939 which includes a detailed illustration of the head of the bronze-age girl.

Olddanske Tekstiler / Ancient danish Textiles

In 1949, Margrethe Hald’s doctoral dissertation, Olddanske Tekstiler, was accepted by the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Copenhagen to be publicly defended for the philosophical doctorate. At the time, Hald had been associated with the National Museum’s Department of Antiquities for almost 20 years and had published several major works on Bronze Age textiles together with H. C. Broholm. 

In 1950, the work was published, which still constitutes one of the cornerstones of Danish and international textile research. Her dissertation deals with the National Museum’s collection of textile finds from the Iron Age, many of which had not previously been analysed or published at that time. This was perhaps due to the fact, as Hald later wrote in an author’s report of her dissertation that “The cloths found in the bogs could not be said to immediately offer special charm; they look dull and often very rugged…” 

Nevertheless, it turned out that many of the dull-looking textiles were technically interesting and exhibited peculiar features that led Hald on the trail of several important discoveries. In 1980, her dissertation was published in English as Ancient Danish textiles from bogs and burials.

In 1949, Margrethe Hald’s doctoral dissertation, Olddanske Tekstiler, was accepted by the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Copenhagen to be publicly defended for the philosophical doctorate. At the time, Hald had been associated with the National Museum’s Department of Antiquities for almost 20 years and had published several major works on Bronze Age textiles together with H. C. Broholm. 

In 1950, the work was published, which still constitutes one of the cornerstones of Danish and international textile research. Her dissertation deals with the National Museum’s collection of textile finds from the Iron Age, many of which had not previously been analysed or published at that time. This was perhaps due to the fact, as Hald later wrote in an author’s report of her dissertation that “The cloths found in the bogs could not be said to immediately offer special charm; they look dull and often very rugged…” 

Nevertheless, it turned out that many of the dull-looking textiles were technically interesting and exhibited peculiar features that led Hald on the trail of several important discoveries. In 1980, her dissertation was published in English as Ancient Danish textiles from bogs and burials

Peder Halds malerier af søstrene Margrethe og Anna / Peder Hald’s portraits of his sisters Margrethe and Anna

Peder Hald (1892-1987) var civilingeniør, keramiker, maler og billedhugger. Han arbejdede i mange år som leder af Kunstakademiets farvetekniske laboratorium og udgav adskillige bøger om kunstneriske teknikker. Han var flere gange udsendt af FN for at oprette keramiske værksteder i udviklingslande, bl. a. Burma og Peru. 

Anna Hald Terkelsen (1894-1982), Margrethe Halds ældre søster, var gift med forstander på Danebod Højskole Frede Terkelsen (1894-1958) og forestod gennem 34 år håndarbejdsundervisningen på højskolen. Anna bistod også Margrethe i hendes udforskning af oldtidens tekstile teknikker og arbejdsmetoder. 

De tre kunstnerisk begavede søskende holdt i 1933 en særudstilling på Charlottenborg sammen. 

Peder Hald (1892-1987) was an engineer, ceramic artist, painter and sculpturer. He was the leader of the Royal Academy of Art´s colour engineering laboratory for many years and wrote a number of books on artistic techniques. He was sent to developing countries, such as Burma and Peru, several times by the UN in order to establish ceramic workshops. 

Anna Hald Terkelsen (1894-1982), the elder sister of Margrethe Hald, was married to Frede Terkelsen (1894-1958), the principal of Danebod Højskole, and she was in charge of the handicraft teaching there for 34 years. Anna also assisted Margrethe in her exploration of ancient textile techniques and methods of work. 

In 1933, the three artistically gifted siblings had a special exhibition together at Charlottenborg.